Antonov An-2

The Antonov An-2 (Russian nickname: ? (kukuruznik, "maize farmworker", inherited from the earlier Polikarpov Po-2); also nicknamed "Annushka" or "Annie") is a single-engine biplane utility/agricultural aircraft designed in the USSR in 1946.[1] (USAF/DoD reporting name Type 22,[4] NATO reporting name Colt.[5]) The An-2 is used as a light utility transport, parachute drop aircraft, agricultural work and many other tasks suited to this large slow-flying biplane. Its slow flight and good field performance make it suited for short, unimproved fields, and some specialized variants have also been built for cold weather and other extreme environments. The Guinness Book of World Records states that the 45-year production run for the An-2 was for a time the longest ever, for any aircraft, but it was recently exceeded by the Lockheed C-130 Hercules.[1] The Antonov An-2 was designed to meet a 1947 Soviet Ministry of Forestry requirement for a replacement for the Polikarpov Po-2, which was used in large numbers in both agricultural and utility roles. Antonov designed a large single bay biplane of all-metal construction, with an enclosed cockpit and a cabin with room for seats accommodating twelve passengers. The first prototype, designated SKh-1, and powered by a Shvetsov ASh-21 radial engine, flew on 31 August 1947. The second prototype was fitted with a more powerful Shvetsov ASh-62 engine, which allowed the aircraft's payload to be significantly increased from 1,300 kg (2,870 lb) to 2,140 kg (4,720 lb), and in this form it was ordered into production.[6] By 1960 the USSR had produced over 5,000 units. Since 1960, most An-2s have been built at Poland's WSK factory in Mielec, with over 13,000 made there before full production ended in 1991. Limited production from parts stocks, as well as spares and maintenance coverage continued until 2001, when 4 aircraft were produced for Vietnam.[7] China also builds the An-2 und

r license as the Shijiazhuang Y-5.[1] The An-2 was designed as a utility aircraft for use in forestry and agriculture. However, the basic airframe is highly adaptable and numerous variants have been developed. These include hopper-equipped versions for crop-dusting, scientific versions for atmospheric sampling, water-bombers for fighting forest-fires, flying ambulances, float-equipped seaplane versions, and lightly armed combat versions for dropping paratroops Soviet paratroopers would practice low-level jumps into snowdrifts without parachutes.[8] The most common version is the An-2T 12-seater passenger aircraft. All versions (other than the An-3) are powered by a 750 kW (1,000 hp) nine-cylinder Shvetsov ASh-62 radial engine, which was developed from the Wright R-1820.[1] It uses 43 gallons of avgas per hour. The An-2 has design features which make it suitable for operation in remote areas with unsurfaced airstrips: It has a pneumatic brake system (similar to those used on heavy road vehicles) to stop on short runways.[1] It has an air line fitted to the compressor, so the pressure in the tires and shock absorbers can be adjusted without the need for special equipment.[1] The batteries are large and easy to remove, so the aircraft does not need a ground power unit to supply power.[1] There is no need for an external fuel pump to refuel the aircraft, as it has an onboard pump that allows the tanks to be filled from simple fuel drums.[1] It has a minimum of complex systems. The crucial wing leading edge slats that give the aircraft its slow flight ability are fully automatic, being held closed by the airflow over the wings. Once the airspeed drops below 64 km/h (40 mph), the slats will extend because they are on elastic rubber springs.[1] Take-off run: 170 m, landing run: 215 m (these numbers will of course vary depending on take-off/landing weight, outside air temperature, surface roughness, and headwind).[1